Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение
«Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт
цветоводства и субтропических культур»
(ФГБНУ ВНИИЦиСК)

  (862) 296-40-21
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Gvasaliya M.
 
Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Russian Research Institute of Floriculture and Subtropical Crops”
c. Sochi, Russia, e-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищён от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.
 
A long term studies of yield, biochemical composition and leaf quality indicators of perspective mutant forms developed by famous breeder Kerkadze I.G. in the paper are presented: №№ 582 (obtained by radioactive mutagenesis – aneuploid 2n = 36); 2264 (colchicine mutant – mixoploid 2n = 38); 3823 (obtained by radioactive mutagenesis – myxoploid 2n = 42). Kolhida chose as a control cultivar.

Keywords: tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze), mutagenesis induction, mutant tea forms, yield, biochemical value, quality indicators.
 
The All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Tea and Subtropical Crops, located in Western Georgia (Anaseuli) coordinated all breeding studies and carried out a scientific and methodological guide of tea crop research. During breeding of new tea cultivars, the most neoteric breeding approaches were using. More than 640 new induced mutant forms of tea were obtaining under the supervision of I.G. Kerkadze, in the laboratory of radiobiology, using radiation and chemical mutagenesis [1-2]. This work were carrying out in close cooperation with the Institute of General Genetics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Chemical Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Physics and the Institute of Cybernetics of the Georgia Academy of Sciences. Scientists of the laboratory developed techniques for obtaining polyploid tea forms; as a result, the collection of most valuable forms were creating. Chemical mutagens (alkaloid colchicine, nitroso derivatives of urea: nitrosomethylurea – NMU, nitrosoethylurea – NEU) were used as inducing agents, as well as radioactive irradiation (gamma radiation in doses: 10 – 12 – 15 gray). A wide spectrum of plastid and morphological changes was obtained, with 100 % vitality of plants by application a chemical mutagen iminmethylurea – IMU (in the concentration of 0.01 – 0.05 – 0.1) onto the apical meristems of tea [2-3]. Using the method of experimental mutagenesis in tea breeding resulted enhancing selection of useful forms, increasing the frequency of hereditary variability and expanding their spectrum of genetic diversity [4-5-6-7]. Scientists of All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Tea and Subtropical Crops worked in close cooperation with all tea-growing enterprises of the USSR [8]. Thus, a collection of mutant tea forms developed by I.G Kerkadze were duplicated from Georgia to Russian Research Institute of Floriculture and Subtropical Crops (Russia, Sochi), in order to study potential of the genotypes in more northern areas of tea cultivation [9-10].

The studies were carrying out in the humid subtropics of Russia, in the period 2008 – 2010 years, in Sochi – the 1-st agroecological zone – the Primorsky cluster, the foothills (Sochi, 65 m above sea level), the soil - yellow forest unsaturated, humus 2-7 %, the reaction of the soils is acidic, pHkcl 4.0 – 5.0.

Research objects: Kolhida cultivar – was taken as control, diploid (2n = 30); induced mutant forms of Kerkadze selection: №№ 582 – radiomutant of the Kimyń population, aneuploid (2n = 36); 2264 – colchimutant of the Kimyn population, mixoploid (2n = 38); 3823 – the radiomutant of the Kimyn population, mixoploid (2n = 42). Tea plantation was established in 1996, total area – 0.5 hectares, planting scheme – 120 x 33 cm; the width of the collection surface is 100 cm; 3 times repeatability.

Tea mutant forms vegetated in a relatively unstoppable rhythm, demonstrating their high productive and adaptive potential, reducing the consequences of summer risk drought to minimum (tab. 1).
 
Table 1 - The dynamics of tealeaf yield in relation to harvest, % (2007 – 2009 years)

Tea

genotype

May

June

July

August

Average centners per ha

cen /ha

%

cen /ha

%

cen /ha

%

cen /ha

%

Kolhida control

15.8

36.0

3.9

8.9

10.4

23.7

13.8

31.4

43.9

№ 582

16.8

33.7

4.7

9.4

14.3

28.7

14.0

28.2

49.8

№ 2264

14.0

46.5

4.4

14.6

6.0

19.7

5.8

19.2

30.2

№ 3823

17.5

31.7

6.1

11.1

15.9

28.8

15.7

28.4

55.2

Less significant difference 05

1.4

0.5

1.6

1.8

3.8


During the observations, a general pattern was observed for the May yield peaks of tea mutant forms. № 3823 showed the best adaptive potential to June drought according the yield, as the main indicator of breeding value.

Leadership on that position belongs to the radiomutant form № 3823 (55.2 centner /ha), comparing with the control cultivar Kolhida (43.9 centner/ha) showed increased yield by 25.7 %. Good results were obtained also in form № 582 – 49.8 centner/ha, with an advantage exceeding the control of 13.4 %. Form № 2264 with 30.2 centner/ha which is lower than control cultivar Kolkhida, the significant difference was of 31.2 %.

Fisher's mathematical analysis of obtained data [11] confirmed a significant advantage in the productivity of the radiomutant forms №№ 582 and 3823. Concerning the breeding value of these forms, our research is consistent with the works of Gabrichidze Z. [12].

The average mass of 3-leaf fleshes is one of the main indicators of the yield of studied tea forms. The largest fleshes were obtaining from form № 3823 – 1.0 g, which is 12.4 % increased control cultivar Kolhida (0.89 g). Form № 582 (0.96 g) follows next, its indicators were by 7.8 % higher than control (tab. 2). It should be noting the average mass of 3-leaf fleshes is 0.3 – 0.5 g on the commercial plantations filled with local tea population.
 
Table 2 - Average mass of mutant tea forms fleshes per months, g (2008 – 2010 years)

Tea genotype

Average of flesh mass, g

Average

May

June

July

August

Kolhida – control

0.92

0.83

0.89

0.90

0.89

№ 582

1.2

0.85

0.90

0.90

0.96

№ 2264

0.89

0.78

0.88

0.80

0.84

№ 3823

1.2

0.92

0.99

1.0

1.0

Less significant diffe-rence 05

0.29

0.12

0.06

0.06

0.11


The economic value of the mutant tea forms were studying based on the main biochemical indicators of fresh leaf yield. So, highest content of tannin and extractive substances were observing in mutant form № 582 (tab. 3).
 
Table 3 - Biochemical analysis of 3-leaf fleshes of mutant tea forms, % in dry mass (2008 – 2010 years)

Tea genotype

June

July

August

Average

extractive substances

%

tannin

%

extractive substances

%

tannin

%

extractive substances

%

tannin

%

extractive substances

%

tannin

%

Kolhida control

43.77

28.95

45.94

29.79

43.84

27.50

44.52

28.75

№ 582

44.49

28.55

45.34

32.08

46.35

33.34

45.39

31.32

№ 2264

42.85

29.95

45.54

30.93

43.64

25.97

44.00

28.62

№3823

43.57

27.56

43.51

32.08

44.75

26.73

43.94

28.79


Thereby for all valuable breeding traits, a significant advantage of mutant forms was established. Thus, the yield of tea mutant forms № 582 (49.8 centner/ha) and № 3823 (55.2 centner/ha) exceeded the control cultivar Kolhida (43.9 centner/ha) by 13.4 – 25.7 %. The average mass of 3-leaf fleshes of mutant forms № 582 and № 3823 (0.96 – 1.0 g) was higher than control (0.89 g). Form № 582 exceeded the control cultivar Kolhida by tannin content by 2.6%.

References

1. Kerkadze I. (1987) Theory and practice of spontaneous and induced mutagenesis of subtropical crops. Moscow (in Russian)
2. Kerkadze I., Bakanidze M., Adeishvili N. (1980). Results of physiology and radiobiology researches of tea and subtropical crops. Subtropical Crops, 5: 66-70 (in Russian).
3. Kerkadze I., Baratashvili D. (1983) Methodical instructions of mutagenic factors use in the selection of subtropical crops. Georgia, Anaseuli: VNPO of Tea and Subtropical Crops, Agriculture Ministry of the USSR (in Russian).
4. Tavdgiridze Sh., Kerkadze I. (1975) Cytogenetic features of some karyotypes forms in the Thea genus. Subtropical Crops, 2:132-134 (in Russian).
5. Werner G., Gisela W. (1983) Induced mutations in plant breeding. Springer. London.
6. Mohanjain S. Priyadarshan P. (2009) Polyploidy Breeding. Mutation Breeding. “Breeding Plantation Tree Crops”. Tropical spicies. Springer: 565-576.
7. Roychowhury R. (2013). Crop Improvement: New Approaches and Modern Techniques. Mutagenesis – a Potential Approach for Crop Improvement. Springer Science + Business Media: 149-187.
8. Daraselia M., Vorontsov V., Gvasaliya V. (1989) Tea Crop in the USSR (in Russian).
9. Gvasaliya M. (2013) Comparative characteristics of productivity of varieties and forms of tea of different origin in conditions of damp subtropics of Russia. Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 4: 16-18 (in Russian).
10. Gvasaliya M. (2015) Spontaneous and induced varieties and forms of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) in the damp subtropics of Russia and Abkhazia, the prospects for their reproduction and conservation in vitro culture. Krasnodar (in Russian).
11. Dospekhov B. (1985) Methodology of field experience. Moscow. Agropromizdat (in Russian).
12. Gabritchidze Z., Loladze D. Eliadze E. (2004) Tea induced forms bioproductivity during their vegetative reproduction. Subtropical crops, 1 – 2 (251 – 252):47-49.
 

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