Федеральное государственное бюджетное научное учреждение
«Всероссийский научно-исследовательский институт
цветоводства и субтропических культур»
(ФГБНУ ВНИИЦиСК)

  (862) 296-40-21
  (862) 246-80-16

 
Aditi Smith1,  Borua P.K.2
 
1Department of Tea Husbandry and Technology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-786 013, Assam, India
2Department of Life Science, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh-786 004, Assam, India
 
Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is a heterogeneous woody perennial plant with many overlapping physiological and biochemical attributes. It produces the oldest and most popular non-alcoholic soft beverage across the world and is one of the most important cash crops of many countries, including India. Indian tea is among the finest in the world owing to heavy investments in tea processing units, continuous innovation, and strategic market expansion. With a longstanding history of cultivating and consuming tea, North East India is believed to be highly rich in genetic diversity of tea. The work been undertaken to evaluate and document diverse tea species on the basis of physiological and biochemical characters which may provide the important informative scientific basic for tea breeding programs.

The physiological and biochemical profile in tea from fourteen (14) industry tea clones clones viz. R94, M1, P126, P18, P38, P195, Keyhang, N436, S3A3, T3E3, Teenali-17, N325, N305 and L807had been considered as experimental materials grown in Upper Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam was investigated for four harvesting seasons till 2017. For physiological characters viz. days required for bud break, days required to reach the tipping height from bud break, girth of the primaries, numbers of primaries reached to the tipping height and number of maintenance foliage per primary, shoot yield by assessment of plucking point density and weight of plucked shoot, shoot growth rate and specific leaf area were studied to observe the physiology of pruning performance of fourteen industry clones by adopting different physical and dimensional methods. The clones T3E3 and P195 showed higher number primaries per bush reaching to tipping height which is an important growth character after pruning operation. The shoot growth was found good in S3A3, Teenali-17, T3E3, P18, R94 and P38 whereas nursery growth performance was found good in R94, N436, P126, N325 and Teenali-17 which is an important criterion for breeding propgramme. The study revealed that a highly significant and positive correlation between yield and plucking point density (0.731**), girth of primary (0.341**), primary per pruning stick (0.316**) and primary per bush reaching tipping height (0.303*).

To estimate the biochemical characters four biochemical parameters viz. total polyphenols, caffeine, free amino acids and pigments were taken. The estimations were done for four plucking season with five replications all the biochemical characters. Significant seasonal variation was observed in total polyphenol content showing the highest value in second flush (25.11%) followed by autumn flush (23.54%), first flush (22.74%) and rain flush (22.46%). Significant seasonal variation was also observed in total chlorophyll content showing the highest value in rain flush (2.41 mg/g) followed by second flush (1.80 mg/g), autumn flush (1.43 mg/g) and first flushes (1.08 mg/g). The results of present study may be used for profiling the estate clones for black and green tea manufacturing purpose and also for future breeding programme for developing new clones.

In correlation study, total polyphenols exhibited significant positive correlation with caffeine and significant negative correlation with total amino acids. The results of correlation among the biochemical parameters also indicated that there is a negative correlation among the amount of pigments and quality factors such as polyphenol and caffeine. Carotenoid has a positive correlation with chlorophyll but a negative one with polyphenols that cause transparency and color in tea.

The correlation similarity proximity matrix with squared Euclidean Distance method utilizing both physiological and biochemical parameters has been found to range from 1.00 to 0.009 indicating a high degree of variation among the studied materials. The highest similarity value (0.009) was observed between clone N436 and P18and the lowest similarity value (1.000) was found between the clone P 38 and Teenali-17. The results of present study may have an important role in identifying taxa and profiling the estate clones for black and green tea manufacturing purpose. This information may help in identifying genotypes with high production potential which could be used as genetics resources in tea breeding programmes and can be used for improvement of the commercially grown tea.

Key words: Tea, Germplasm, Tea shoots, Polyphenol, Caffeine, Pigment
 

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